BC Railing Codes

​Railing Code BC

​National Railing Codes in Canada are among the most strict in the world, British columbia is no different than Ontario with national standards Many people see railings built south of the border ​that wont pass code there or here.

The NBC National building code ​is applied by local Districts, Township's and Cities.

While it may not be applied to you on a local level yet these are considered to be the national standards.

Handrails

​handrails provide guidance and support on staircases and landings through connection to walls and or floors with legs

Refer to this table to determine the number of handrails required:

Location of Stair or Ramp

Handrail Serving Stairs

Handrails Serving Ramps
Stairs <1100mm (43”) WideStairs 1100mm (43”)  WideRamps < 1100 mm (43”)  Wide

Ramps ≥ 1100 mm (43”)  Wide

Straight

CurvedAll

Straight or Curved

All

Number of Sides Required to Have a Handrail

Within a dwelling unit or a house with a secondary suite

1

11

1

2

All other locations

1

22

2

2

Handrails must be continuously “graspable”. The expectation is that the user does not have to release the handrail to continue to the next flight of stairs,​

Stairs ≥ 2200mm (87 inches) require an intermediate handrail such that a user is no more than 825mm (32 inches) from a handrail.

Minimum-height-of-handrail-2Handrail Height

A handrail must be between 865mm and 1070mm (34  and 42 inches) above the nosing. In the U.S., the I-Codes require handrail placed between 34 and 38 inches. In commercial applications, the NBC permits the top or a guard (42″ minimum height) to also serve as handrail. In the U.S., once a stair has a 30″ drop, a guard (42″ minimum) and a handrail (34″ to 38″) would both be required.

Handrail Graspability

In the National Building Code, handrails must be “graspable”. In keeping with the prescriptive nature of the NBC, that is not defined. The NBC notes Graspable portion of a handrail should allow a person to comfortably grab hold by allowing their fingers and thumb to curl under part of the handrail . . . Or have a recess that is sufficiently wide and deep to accommodate a person’s fingers. 

 

But, Ontario does have specific requirements on handrail size. Always confirm local requirements.

NBC clearance requirementsHandrail Bracket Clearance

The National Building Code requires a 2-inch minimum clearance between the wall and handrail. If the wall surface is considered “rough”, that clearance should be 2-3/8 inch.

Handrail Extensions

In the NBC, handrails must be terminated in a manner that will not obstruct pedestrian travel or create a hazard. . . One approach to reducing potential hazards is returning the handrail to a wall, floor or post.

While the NBC leaves room for interpretation, Ontario has very specific requirements regarding extensions which are more in keeping with those in the U.S. Confirm with your local jurisdiction.

Guard

Guards are in place to prevent accidental falls. Generally not required unless there is a 600mm (24-inch) drop (The I-Codes require guards once there is a 30-inch drop). Minimum Height of 1070mm (42-inch) in commercial applications and 900mm (36-inch) in residential applications.

Minimum Height of 1070mm (42-inch) in commercial applications and 900mm (36-inch) in residential applications.

Guards have an opening limitation 100mm (3-7/8-inch).

Climbability Restrictions

Unlike the I-Codes, the National Building Code does have climbability restrictions for guards.

The 2015 National Building Code does note, however, that climbability restrictions are required for levels above 4.2 meters (13′-9″) above the adjacent level. This is a change from the 2010 NBC which required climbability restrictions on all guards. Confirm with your local jurisdiction as at the time of this writing, Ontario had not yet adopted the 2015 NBC and still requires climbability restrictions on all guards.

Climbability restrictions do not apply for guards in industrial applications where children are not expected to be present.

Acceptable Design Examples

The following are design examples which the NBC has determined to be non-climbable.

Protrusions that are greater than 450mm (18”) apart horizontally and vertically are considered sufficiently far apart to reduce the likelihood of climbing.

Climbable Railing Exceptions Canada

Protrusions that present a horizontal offset of 15mm (1/2-inch) or less are considered to not provide a sufficient foot purchase to facilitate climbing.

Climbable Railing Exceptions Canada

Designs incorporating spaces that are not more than 45mm (1-3/4”) wide and 200mm (3/4”) high is considered not to facilitate climbing.

Climbable Railing Exceptions Canada

Protrusions that present more than a 2-in-1 slope on the offset are considered to not facilitate climbing.

Climbable Railing Exceptions Canada

Load Requirements for Guards

Location of GuardMinimum Specified Loads
Horizontal Load Applied Inward or Outward at any Point at the Minimum Required Height of the GuardHorizontal Load Applied Outward on Elements Within the Guard, Including Solid Panels and BalustersEvenly distributed Vertical Load Applied at the Top of the Guard
Guards within dwelling units and exterior guards serving not more than 2 dwelling units.0.5 kN/m (34 lb/ft) OR concentrated load of 1.0 Kn (225 lbs) applied at any point0.5 kN (112 lbs) applied over a maximum width of 300mm (12”)  and a height of 300 mm (12”).1.5 kN/m (103 lb/ft)
Guards serving access ways to equipment platforms and similar areas where the gathering of many people is improbable.Concentrated load of 1.0 kN (225 lbs) applied at any point.Concentrated load of 0.5 kN (112 lbs) over an area of 100mm by 100mm (3-7/8” by 3-7/8”) located at any point on the element or elements so as to produce the most critical effect.
All other guards0.75 kN/M (51 lb/ft) OR concentrated load of 1.0 kN (225 lbs) applied at any point.

Load Requirements for Handrail

  1. Handrail and their supports shall be designed and constructed to withstand the following loads which are not to be considered to act simultaneously:
    1. a concentrated load of not less than 0.9 kN (202 lbs)
    2. or a uniform load of 0.7 kN/m (48 lb/ft)